Intervención del Consejo de la Nación Charrúa en la decimosexta sesión del Foro Permanente para las Cuestiones Indígenas de Naciones Unidas

Intervención del Consejo de la Nación Charrúa.

Decimosexta Sesión del Foro Permanente para las Cuestiones Indígenas las Naciones Unidas

Nueva York, 28 de abril del 2017.


Tema11: Seguimiento del documento final de la Conferencia Mundial sobre los Pueblos Indígenas.

Muchas gracias señora Presidenta.

Soy Mónica Michelena, del Pueblo Charrúa de Uruguay y vengo representando al Consejo de la Nación Charrúa.

El estado uruguayo se ha construido en base al Genocidio del Pueblo Charrúa, perpetrado en 1831 por el primer presidente constitucional de mi país. Es de esta manera que el propio Estado se apropia por completo de todo nuestro territorio ancestral.

Desde hace ya más de veinte años, los charrúas estamos en un proceso de reconstitución como Pueblo-Nación, conjuntamente con los hermanos charrúas de Argentina. Estamos trabajando para derribar la representación simbólica de la extinción, para así poder salir de la invisibilización estructural a la cual fuimos y somos sometidos. Hoy los charrúas estamos vivos, estamos de pie y volvemos a construir juntos nuestro propio destino.

Uruguay posee una imagen internacional de un estado de avanzada respecto al cumplimiento de los derechos humanos, pero sin embargo no demuestra el menor interés en avanzar en el reconocimiento del Pueblo Charrúa.

Uruguay votó a favor de la Declaración de los Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas de las Naciones Unidas, pero incumple totalmente con ella y no ha realizado un Plan de Acción para su implementación. Tampoco cumple con ninguno de los compromisos asumidos en la Conferencia Mundial sobre Pueblos Indígenas del 2014.

Durante dicha Conferencia Uruguay pidió perdón ante los demás estados y pueblos indígenas por el genocidio charrúa, sin embargo aún no lo reconoce oficialmente. Asimismo el presidente uruguayo expresó a los medios hace cuatro días atrás, al ser interpelado públicamente por una joven charrúa, que es un tema muy delicado que debe tratarse con rigurosidad científica y que la Comisión de Patrimonio será quien determine si se considera o no genocidio. Queremos aclarar que este caso de genocidio cumple con la definición de genocidio según la Convención para la Prevención y la Sanción del Delito de Genocidio.

A pesar de que en el último Censo Nacional del 2011, un 5 % de la población se auto-identificó con ascendencia indígena, y un 2,4 % la consideró su principal ascendencia, el estado uruguayo sigue negando nuestra existencia actual como Pueblo Indígena y tampoco ha avanzado en la ratificación del Convenio 169 de la OIT, como se comprometió públicamente en la Conferencia Mundial sobre Pueblos Indígenas. Igualmente el actual gobierno ha definido que no lo ratificará durante el periodo su mandato.

Esto dificulta mucho nuestro proceso de reconstitución ya que sin territorio es imposible poder desarrollarnos ni trasmitir a las futuras generaciones los saberes y prácticas tradicionales. Tampoco tenemos acceso a nuestros lugares sagrados para hacer nuestras ceremonias y honrar a nuestros ancestros, ni tampoco podemos protegerlos de los megaproyectos extractivistas que se están instalando en ellos.

Los charrúas que viven en el medio rural sufren constantemente de la intoxicación por agrotóxicos que son utilizados para los cultivos de la soja trasngénica. Las escuelas rurales son fumigadas por avionetas que pasan encima de ellas sin ningún control por parte del estado, enfermando a los niños charrúas y a sus maestras y sin que el estado haga un registro y estudio de los mismos.

A 10 años de la Declaración son necesarias medidas drásticas, hay una gran brecha entre la jurisprudencia y la implementación, una cosa son las declaraciones que hacen los estados acá en esta sala y otra cosa muy distinta la real aplicación de todo los avances que plantean aquí en sus discursos.

Por mi Pueblo Charrúa y por todos los Pueblos Indígenas queremos hacer las siguientes recomendaciones al Foro Permanente:

  • Que realice un informe pormenorizado de los casos de Pueblos Indígenas no reconocidos por los estados y que cree un protocolo para que los estados los reconozcan.

  • Que realice un estudio de los genocidios indígenas perpetrados por los estados nacionales y diseñe un protocolo para que los estados los reconozcan y efectúen las respectivas medidas reparatorias de resarcimiento.

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